Lead coffins - Mining companies accused of lead poisoning in North America and Peru
Canada's Commission for Environmental Cooperation has named Anglo America, Noranda and Inco as the key toxic lead polluters throughout north America.
Meanwhile the Doe Run smelter in Peru is causing increasing anxiety among residents and medical authorities for the unacceptable burden of lead and sulphur dioxide it's loading onto local people - children in particular. Residents want to know how Doe Run's owner, wealthy US junk bond promoter Ira Rennert, can continue pleading poverty while failing to clean up his deadly act.
Lead Still North American Pollution Danger - Report
Story by Robert Melnbardis, Planet Ark
May 25, 2005
Montreal, Canada - Lead still tops the list of industrial pollutants in North America that can cause birth defects or developmental damage in children, even though lead pollution has fallen since the phaseout of leaded gasoline in the 1980s, according to a study released Tuesday.
In its 9th annual survey, the Montreal-based Commission for Environmental Co-operation said the metal and its compounds remain the leading developmental toxin released by industrial facilities, with much of it coming from just three base metal smelters in Canada.
"We see that lead comes out at the top of the list in terms of developmental toxicants and known or suspected carcinogens," said commission spokesman Evan Lloyd.
Lead can accumulate in the human body, harming the reproductive system and causing nervous system damage in fetuses and small children, which can lead to problems with their physical and mental development. It can also cause cancer.
Lead released into the environment totaled 43.4 million kilograms in 2002, accounting for 24 percent of the total release of 77 developmental toxins in the study of data submitted to the US and Canadian governments by 24,192 facilities in 2002.
Steps taken to reduce emissions of lead, such as eliminating leaded gasoline, have drastically cut its concentrations in the environment, the report said.
In the United States, lead concentrations in the air fell by 94 percent from 1983 to 2002, but the overall problem of lead emissions has not gone away, the commission said.
"It's contained -- in a majority of these instances in terms of volume -- in a relatively few, very large metal smelters and manufacturing facilities," Lloyd said.
Canadian industrial facilities representing 5 percent of those reporting emissions of lead and its compounds accounted for 42 percent of lead releases into the air in 2002, according the the report.
The top emitter of lead on site was a base metal smelter owned by Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting in Manitoba, a company spun off last year by Anglo American Plc.
The others in the top three were Noranda Inc.'s Horne smelter in Quebec and Inco Ltd.'s Copper Cliff complex in Ontario.
"Currently in Canada, there are no limits on lead air emissions from smelters, whereas in the United States ... there are various standards applied across the board," Lloyd said.
In a statement Tuesday, Canadian Environment Minister Stephane Dion said the government is aware of the problem and last year proposed measures that would reduce lead emissions from smelters by some 30 percent by 2008.
Doe Run Smelter Poisons Peru Town-Residents
Planet Ark, Story by Robin Emmott
May 25, 2005
La Oroya, Peru - Yellow plumes of sulfur and dust sting Gina Jara's eyes as she plays in the streets around La Oroya's US-owned metals smelter, blamed by community groups for poisoning residents with its toxic gases.
Eight years after The Doe Run Co. took over the smelter, one of the world's biggest, doctors, nongovernmental organizations and worried parents say the company has not done enough to cut harmful blood lead levels that can cause serious illnesses ranging from lung cancer to paralysis.
"My throat burns, my eyes sting. It's the smoke," said Gina, 10, pointing to the chimney that billows fumes over the impoverished town of 35,000 people in Peru's central Andes.
When Missouri-based Doe Run took over the state-run operations in 1997, many hoped it would quickly overhaul the smelter and clean up La Oroya, Peru's dirtiest mining town.
Since then, Doe Run has spent $78 million on modernization and by 2006 it will have invested $94 million in meeting government environmental norms. Waste is no longer dumped into the rivers, workers' blood levels have fallen by a third and harmful sulfur dioxide emissions are down by 20 percent.
But a recent study by Doe Run and Peru's Health Ministry showed 99.9 percent of children up to age six in La Oroya have abnormally high blood lead levels. Eighty-two percent of the 788 children tested have levels between two and four times what the World Health Organization (WHO) considers normal.
Gina, who has rashes on her arms that her mother says are from the smelter gases, complains of a lack of appetite and dizziness. Her blood lead level, at 23 micrograms per deciliter, is double safe WHO levels.
Adults are also at risk, said La Oroya doctor Hugo Villa. "One smelter worker I treat has lost control of his right hand. He suffers from paralysis and the cause is lead poisoning," said Villa.
Doe Run says it is doing all it can to modernize the aging, blackened smelter, which was built in 1922 without any thought to the environment.
Government nationalization of the operations in 1974 brought no improvement. The surrounding hillsides are burned bare by acid rain linked to the smelter.
"Health is our top priority now. We'll make significant progress in reducing emissions (that leak out of roofs and doors at the smelter) by December 2006," said Juan Huyhua, head of operations at La Oroya.
But the smelter, which processes 10 metals including copper and silver, still churns out 792 tonnes of sulfur dioxide a day, more than four times Peru's legal limit.
Indeed, community groups say that for all Doe Run's investments, it has not tackled the main problems of lead, sulfur and dust emissions.
The company was required by law to build a sulfuric acid plant at a cost of $100 million that, along with other modernization, would capture all toxic gases and end lead pollution by 2007.
But Doe Run, which has a high-interest debt load of $219 million owed to bondholders in the United States, last year said it needed until 2011 because the acid plant had to come after the emission leakages problem was resolved. Without the extension it would default on bank loans and be forced to pull out of Peru.
Jobs Versus Pollution
Because the company is the only big employer in the isolated region, Doe Run's 4,700 workers support the operations despite the health risks. Last December, they rallied to pressure the government to grant Doe Run until 2010.
"It's not that we defend Doe Run. We defend the smelter because it is our source of income," said engineer Jose Macassi, who has worked at the smelter since 1980.
But community groups say Doe Run has ducked its responsibilities. They are angry that the company pleaded poverty when the company's owner, US investor Ira Rennert, has built one of the largest residential compounds in the United States, in Southampton, New York, a coastal resort community of the very wealthy.
Indeed, Rennert has received a great deal of negative media attention, pointing to a track record of buying pollution-troubled companies cheaply, leveraging them up with junk bonds against the assets and earning profits.
"They said the gases would stop in 2007. Now they are saying 2010. That's more generations of sick children," said Dora Santana of health association Filomena Tomaira.
Doe Run says it will complete the acid plant early. "We feel confident it will be operating by 2009," said Huyhua. "Canada's Fleck Chemical Industries Inc is designing the acid plant and we hope to open the bidding process for the plant's construction next year," he added.
Doe Run says the money will come from recycling zinc ferrites to produce indium, which is used in flat screen televisions, generating $50 million over the next 2-1/2 years.
A switch to natural gas at the smelter could save $2.5 million a year from 2008. Doe Run can also count on millions of dollars in annual cash flow at La Oroya for the next five years, as Chinese demand for copper boosts metal prices.
"I'm not sure I believe them. All we ask is that Doe Run keeps its promises," said Ena Rojas, 32, whose 8-year-old daughter has chronic diarrhea that doctors blame on lead poisoning.