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Activists demand glacier protection in Argentina

Published by MAC on 2016-06-13

Greenpeace members climbed the iconic Obelisk in downtown Buenos Aires

Environmental activists climbed the 40-meter (131-foot) monument to hang a banner reading: “Macri will save the glaciers”.

A video of the action can be seent at:

Greenpeace Activists Climb Obelisk in Argentine Capital

11 June 2016

BUENOS AIRES – Seven Greenpeace members climbed the iconic Obelisk in downtown Buenos Aires on Thursday to demand the closing of a gold mine in western Argentina where there was a cyanide spill in 2015, a spokesman for the environmental group said.

The environmental activists rappelled the 40-meter (131-foot) monument to hang a banner reading: “Macri will save the glaciers,” a reference to President Mauricio Macri.

“We come to ask the president for enforcement of the Glaciers Act and the closing of the Veladero mine (in the western province of San Juan), as we did with the previous government,” Greenpeace Glaciers Campaign coordinator Gonzalo Strano said in a statement.

“Mining companies such as (Canada’s) Barrick Gold (at Veladero) should not be allowed to operate in the periglacial area, where they put rivers at risk of pollution as they did last year with a spill of 1 million liters (265,190 gallons) of cyanide-contaminated water,” Greenpeace said.

Greenpeace is requesting enforcement of the 2010 Glaciers Act, which bans extractive activities, such as mining and oil production, in glacial, periglacial and permafrost areas to protect water resources.

In September 2015, a leak at the Veladero gold mine on the Andean ridge spilled 1,072 cubic meters (37,785 cubic feet) of cyanide-polluted water, Barrick Gold estimated.

Provincial officials fined Barrick Gold and the Argentine courts are still investigating the spill.

In Argentina, Tensions Remain Between Mining and Glacier Protection

Fei Gao

6 April 2016

A recent article “Defending Glaciers in Argentina” in the journal Peace Review, written by Asmaa N. Khadim, explores the history of one of the world’s largest mining companies, Barrick Gold Corporation, and its conflict with Argentina’s environmental protectors. Many of its mining projects are in proximity to glaciers, which are a crucial water source for local residents.

In recent years, to bolster its economy, the Argentine government created incentives to attract foreign capital to invest in mining, which includes lower royalties, favorable foreign investment laws, and a competitive tax regime. But it has not always paid attention to environmental issues.

Many multinational companies want a share of Argentina’s natural resources, like Barrick Gold, Strata, and Meridian Gold, all which have invested heavily in the country’s mining industry. Many of their gold mining operations lie in the Andes, and this region is considered to be one of the most important gold and silver districts across the world. However, many ore deposits lie near glaciers. This location creates risks of water pollution and of mismanagement of water resources, including groundwater. Mining operations could also create soil and air pollution in these settings.

Two particular projects, Veladero and Pascua Lama, in this region have caused many of the disputes, because of their proximity to numerous glaciers high in the Andes. These two projects are run by Barrick Gold Corporation, a Canadian company. The Andes are environmentally sensitive, not only because it is home to massive glaciers, but also because of the significance of glaciers as a source that contributes to Argentina’s water supply.

In 1987, the Brundtland Commission released the paper Our Common Future defining sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This paper reframed the vision of environmental rights, which led many countries, including Argentina, to add environmental protection to their constitutional frameworks.

In late 1990s, local environmental organizations saw the risks of mining development in the Andes. They started to press the Argentine government for a law to protect glaciers. As the paper in Peace Review recounts, “The first bill was approved by Congress in 2008, but was subsequently vetoed by President Cristina Fernandez on the basis of economic development arguments.”

Later, in September 2010, a new version of the glacier protection law, the National Glacier Act, was ratified by the Argentine senate. The role of this law is to act as an inspector to identify areas that require protection. This law faced significant resistance from mining companies. The companies allocated funds to lobby legislators to oppose the  bill. They also paid for nationwide advertising campaigns which opposed this bill and its enforcement. Jorge Daniel Taillant, an Argentine researcher, has documented these efforts in his book Glaciers: The Politics of Ice.

As a result of the pressure from powerful mining companies, a federal court judge suspended the implementation of the 2010 glacier protection law within the province of San Juan, where many mining projects are located. It was not until 2012 that Argentina’s Supreme Court overruled this decision and restored the application of the law to this province.

The tension between mining interests and environmentalists has become more severe as the mining projects continue. Mining brings negative impacts on ecosystems and  biodiversity, water quality, and human health. Khadim describes how Barrick Gold Corporation has hired private security and pressured local provincial police to repress the environmental organizations. Violence and riots have resulted.

It remains a question whether the 2010 law will protect glaciers and water resources. “While constitutional entrenchment alone may not be sufficient to achieve the protection of environmental rights, it appears to be a core foundational step upon which an effective regulatory system may be built,” Khadim states. The outcome of this conflict will have consequences not only in Argentina, but in other areas of the world, such as Central Asia, where mining companies seek to expand into environmentally sensitive mountain areas with glaciers.

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